** Cross posted from: http://www.greenfieldtech.net/blog/2014/03/building-your-asterisk-based-business-part-i **

Since the inception of GreenfieldTech, back in 2007, we’ve assisted over 20 different VoIP companies to bootstrap their activities and launch their products. During that period, some of these companies had become a great success and some had disappeared from the face of the planet. This series of posts will bring the story of some of them – and we’ll try to analyse what made each company into a success or a failure.

Making the case for Asterisk based business

Let’s be honest and truthful with ourselves, we’re all capitalists. Yes, we are first Open Source evangelists and promoters, but at the end of the day, we do need to pay our bills and make ends meet. Thus, we monetize open source (in our case Asterisk) to the best of our abilities – there is no shame in that, and honestly, we take high pride in our ability to assist companies in monetizing open source tools and project in a productive and lucrative manner.

When people talk about Asterisk based businesses, normally they will consider one of the following tracks:

1. Asterisk PBX Integrator – Integrating Asterisk based PBX systems for companies of various sizes. Normally, this will include infrastructure installation, cabling, server support, hardware sales, etc.
2. Hosted PBX Service Provider – Providing VoIP PBX services, without any in-door server equipment, relying on the Internet or leased lines only. Normally this will include similar activities as the Asterisk PBX integrator.
3. Hosted IVR Service Provider – Providing Hosted Interactive Voice Response services to content providers and enterprises that can’t sustain their own IVR infrastructure.
4. Hosted Premium Services Provider – Identical to “Hosted IVR” with a focus on premium services content and adult content.
5. Telecom Carrier – Whether you are a mobile carrier or a landline CLEC, Asterisk applications can benefit a carrier of any size.
6. Value added services provider – Providing complimentary services to Asterisk and its derivatives.

The above is a very short list, as each item on that list can be expanded to 6 more sub-categories – however, these represent the major business types (not including consultants and developers, who fall under category number 1). There are similarities between these and significant differences as well. What may be true for one, maybe completely wrong for another – it all depends on your business goals and product development life cycle and life span. We will limit ourselves to discuss options 2 through 6.

Case I: Long Distance Calling Cards Operator in the US

June 2007, a representative of a calling cards operator in the US approached. The operator was back then using a hosted service from a company called Solegy (long gone) and was fairly unhappy with the service. Their main complaints were: lack of support responsiveness, lack of feature set, inability to expand existing feature set – and most importantly, inability to sustain a proper business model (unlimited calls), due to high termination and hosting prices.

At that time, the calling card operator had put the following restrictions as to creating the service:

1. Bootstrap pricing should not exceed the $10,000 USD.
2. All existing customers should be migrated to the new system.
3. All existing access numbers should be migrated to the new system.
4. New system should be based upon ready-made software – not customized development.
5. New system should enable additional service development and scalability.
6. New system should allow hosting on hosted servers, without any need for proprietary hardware.

The solution that was chosen (after all, it was 2007) was a mixture of OpenSER, coupled with Asterisk 1.4 and A2Billing. Calls will hit the OpenSER SIP proxy, which will then load balance to the various Asterisk servers. The solution met the various constraints listed above – and later on included a monthly support/maintenance cost that was sustainable for the business. The company continued on to provide direct DID numbers, VoIP termination services, Roaming SIM cards solutions, Hospitality Mobile phones and additional services. In 2010, the company had sold its operations to another company – which was a disaster. During the recent changes in the roaming market in the US and other regulations, the company had seized its operations and is no longer operating.

Was this company a success story? – Complicated Answer

Between the years 2007 and 2010, the company had grown from 1000 customers to a whopping 15,000 customers, paying a monthly service fee ranging from $15 USD to $59 USD. Roughly calculated, that’s an average of $550K USD per month turn-over. In deed, termination costs and operational costs rose up to around $450K USD a month, but considering the fact that the company had only 4 employees and two additional outsourced support resources, a monthly Net revenue of $100K USD is not bad – we can surely mark this as a success. The company realized that in order to sustain its business, they would require proper customer care and support services and they made sure these resources were clearly managed and sourced.

Following the company’s purchase in 2010, the new owner had decided that customer care and support structure aren’t really required, as the sales staff can handle customer care and support can be rendered by an outside resource on a per-incident base, with no binding SLA service. ¬†Within less 12 months, the company customer base shrunk from 15,000 to around 3,000, bringing the entire operation to a stand-still. The new owner tried focusing on new business tracks, without preserving and maintaining the existing lucrative tracks.

So, what went wrong here?

The primary answer would be: failure of the new management to understand the business. Calling cards and VoIP services are customer oriented services. This applies to Mobile VoIP OTT services as well. Asterisk is a solid tool to use when building your business, it will take you a long way and make sure your ROI and TCO will remain as low as possible, while preserving your knowledge and experience in-house as much as possible. When a successful company is acquired by a financial outfit, that has no valid experience in the market sector, in many cases – it will fail. The lack of understanding of customer care structures, proper support, proper monitoring, proper NOC, ticketing handling, NOC liaising and proper technical escalation are the main attributes of a successful service and product in this industry.

In our next post

In our next post we’ll discuss the world of “ad-revenue financed calls” and the “call-back industry”, as it was in 2008, 2010 and what happened to it today.


Revenue sharing is one of the oldest methods of earning profits, actually, I believe it may just be right up there with trading of goods and food. For those of you not in the know, I’ll explain what revenue sharing is:

  1. A content provider wishes to distribute a certain type of content – charging for it.
  2. The content provider has not ability to charge the consumers directly, thus he partners with another party – the transport maintainer.
  3. The transport maintainer charges the consumer, while keeping a certain percentage in his pocket.
  4. Everybody’s is happy.

In general, this model works really well in many markets – specifically those that are driven by unique content – for example the mobile content market (ringtones, screen savers, games, apps) – the Apple App store is a wonderful example of how this works.

In the telecom industry, the revenue shares business is very common – however, in many cases it is highly guarded as a secret – main reason is that now one wants anybody else to know how they do it. This hiding of information, usually results in some problems – as when there is hiding of information, only those in the know are able to access it. Those in the know are called “mediators” or in Herbew “Machers”. In this entire ordeal, the mediator also takes a small percentage – leaving the content provider with slightly less. So, now it looks like this:

  1. A content provider wishes to distribute a certain type of content – charging for it.
  2. The content provider has not ability to charge the consumers directly, thus he contacts a mediator to find him a transport partner.
  3. The mediator engages the prospective transport maintainer.
  4. The transport maintainer charges the consumer, while keeping a certain percentage in his pocket and passing some funds to the mediator as well.
  5. Everybody’s is happy.

So, if everybody’s so happy – why am I bitching about it? very simple – people are Greedy and always want more – putting the entire model into a frenzy. In order to give an example, let’s imagine the following scenario:

  1. Company A provides IVR based content utilizing Asterisk server, connected to the internet.
  2. The mediator engages a premium number company, getting the total revenue of 0.08$ for every inbound minute of traffic.
  3. The premium number company leaves 0.01$ in its pocket and also pays the mediator a fee of 0.01$ per minute.
  4. The content provider gets 0.06$ of the 0.08$ – 75% of the net profit goes to the content provider.
  5. Content provider says: “Hell, I want the mediators 0.01$ as well, and I think the premium company should only get 0.005$, so I would get 0.075$ at the end”
  6. Content provider contacts the premium provider and starts complaining
  7. Premium provider negotiates and strikes a deal for 0.07 to the content provider, leaving the premium provider with 0.005$ and the mediator with 0.005$
  8. Premium provider says: “I’m not making enough money on this, actually, I’m loosing money – I’ll find a better alternative service for that access number”
  9. Premium provider asks mediator to bring in a new customer, providing similar content – mediator has sure incentive here
  10. Premium provider gets new customer and transfers the access number to the new customer – returning back to previous profits
  11. Original content provider is left with no profits and only greed in his hands
Screenshot of a GPL screensaver
Image via Wikipedia

Over the past 10 years, I’ve seen this vicious cycle happen over and over and over again, in various formats and scenarios – but always ending in the same outcome – the content provider always suffers. If you’re a content provider and you provide IVR based services, let the people that provide you the access make their cut and the people in the middle, without them, you will have a service with no access – which means no service at all. Don’t go about thinking you can keep all the profits to yourself, you will break the equilibrium of this business, and eventually, no one will want to do business with you.

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Tux, the Linux mascot

Image via Wikipedia

When I started using Open Source software, it seemed like all Open Source projects are driven by philanthropic agendas. We were all focused on “sticking it to the man” – showing all these would be software vendors that community driven projects can do just as well – if not better.

"When I was a child I spoke as a child I 
understood as a child I thought as a child; 
but when I became a man I put away childish 
things." - I Cor. xiii. 11.

Well, I’m not claiming that Open Source is childish – absolutely not, however, when you are a student you tend to look at things in one way, when you have a family to care for – you start looking at things differently. You remember these days in life when your dad said: “When you’ll have children you will understand” – well, now I do.

So, what am I rambling about exactly? I’ll tell you. The day before Passover I attended several meetings, which when I came back home had pissed me off immensely. I feel an urge to write all about these meetings, including who I met exactly, however – I won’t do that. However, I will give a rough idea of these.

Meeting 1 : A world recognized Mobile application player

I came into the meeting with this company, where the CTO of the company explained to me that they are looking to create an Asterisk based solution for their application’s users. My initial question was: how many users? what is your concurrency level? – The answer that I got was: “Oh, we don’t need something major, just a few lines of configurations in Asterisk config files in order to make this work”.

I left the meeting slightly pissed off, thinking to myself: “You bloody inconsiderate prick! You bring me to a meeting, spend my time – and then telling me that this is just a few lines of configuration. If it is that simple, why don’t you do it yourself? you have 20 developers in there, 4 IT people and god knows how many outsourced workers off-shore – if it was that simple, you would have done it already – so probably it isn’t – right?”

Meeting 2 : A well established IVR services vendor

The second meeting was with a well established IVR content vendor, this company runs around 16M minutes of inbound IVR traffic every month. They invited me in order to talk about expanding into new countries, wishing to get premium based access numbers in various countries. So, we started talking, and the guy indicates that he wants a certain kick-back payout, which I know is impossible – at least without charging the user more. Actually, the guy indicated that out of the interconnect fee, he wants to get almost 90% as a kick back.

Meeting 3 : A start up rendering IVR content

The third meeting was the most amazing one – these guys wanted to build an Asterisk system to server around 4000 concurrent channels – outsource the entire development to my company – and pay as a revenue share. When I asked for their business model, marketing plan, investors, profiles – I got a response of – we don’t yet have all of these, we only have an idea at this point that we want to implement.

Garage based companies are built by people who can do the work themselves, not the other way around.

Photograph of Mark Shuttleworth by Martin Schm...
Image via Wikipedia

At this point, you are probably asking yourself: “What does this have to do with the title?” – Well, all of these meetings had one thing in common. The people I met were under the impression that Open Source is some form of philanthropy. Or to be more exact, people who deal with the Open Source market are philanthropists. My question is this: “Why are we perceived as philanthropists? don’t we have families to care for? don’t we need to pay mortgages and bills just like everybody else?”. I guess when people read about the various Open Source entrepreneurs, such as Mark Shuttleworth – the immediately associate Open Source with Big Exists – this is not the case.

At some level, this is purely our fault – we educated people that Open Source is a highly economical methodology of solving technical challenges. No where along the way, had we educated the public that behind the model there are people, people who need to make a living.

If you are an Open Source consultant, developer, evangelist or just someone who may have an opinion on this, I’d love to read what you say.

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This post is somewhat a combination of posts from previous posts, mainly, the posts about virtualization and my latest posts about the utilization of Amazon EC2. As some of you may know, a part of what I do at GreenfieldTech is develop various API’s for the Asterisk Open Source PBX systems. Two of these API’s are the IVR API and the Dialer API. This post if called “Rock Solid Clouded Asterisk” as it will describe the latest production environment that I’ve implemented, using these API’s and Amazon EC2 virtualization framework.

The network diagram

Our implementation consisted of the following general schematic:

Network Diagram

Network Diagram

The application logic was based upon a JAVA based web-service, implementing the XML-RPC server side of the IVR API, and a dialer management system that controlled the dialer API located on the remotely located dialers – hosted on Amazon EC2 instances. For simplicity, and we were very much aware this would reduce the overall capacity, we’ve located both the dialer framework and the IVR API execution on each of the servers, while allowing the server s to communicate internally.

Some constraints

As much as we wanted to run many Amazon AMI instances, we were limited to running 5 elastic IPs with a single Amazon AWS account. As a result, we’ve registered 5 accounts, and executed a total of 24 AMI instances with 24 elastic IP’s.

An additional constraint we had realised, but had no way of actually knowing its limitation was the actual number of concurrent calls per server. Initially, we’ve reached the following numbers and configuration on a physical server:

  • Intel Quad Core XEON
  • 2GB RAM
  • 1GB Network Uplink
  • CentOS 5.2 64bit
  • Total capacity: 120 concurrent calls of Dialer+IVR on a single server

Per our theory, if we managed to reach a similar capacity using amazon c1.medium instances, we would be very happy.

The results

After conducting a test utilizing a single AMI instance, we’ve reached the following results:

  • Dual Core instance (c1.medium)
  • 180GB Disk Storage
  • 8GB of RAM
  • Fedora Core 8 32bit
  • Total capacity: 80 concurrent calls of Dialer+IVR on a single instance

A decrease of 33% in comparison to the performance observed on a physical server. Ok, so we weren’t all that happy with these results, until we started doing the financial math, realising that using Amazon EC2 with that Dialer+IVR framework would yield a savings of almost 80% in operational costs.

Doing the math

The normal co-located option

Our aim was to reach a capacity of around 2800 concurrent channels. Per the normal physical setup, our hardware requirements would be to use at least 24 servers. At a price of 1500$ per server, that sums up to a total of 36,000$. Adding the time required to install 24 servers, the overall expense for 24 servers would be around the 42,000$ mark. To sustain a total of 2800 concurrent calls, using the g711 codec, we would be required to carry a total of 300Mbps internet uplink – basically talking about 10,000$ of bandwidth.

So, taking all of the above into consideration, we will need a total of 52,000$ just to maintain the hardware installation and operational cost. Taking into consideration that the system would be used at full for no more than a period of 30 hours, we end up with a total of: 1733$ per hour.

The Amazon EC2 option

Now, let’s calculate for Amazon EC2:

2800 concurrent channels translates into 35 instances. Price per c1.medium instance per hour is 0.2$. So, rack that up and you get: 210$ for operating 35 instances for 30 hours.

Elastic IP costs are 0.01$ per hour per server – a total of 10.5$ for 30 hours.

Bandwidth costs are 0.17 per each GB, so according to 300Mbps for 30 hours, with each call duration at 1 minute sums up to be: 5M of data per call. Calculating 2800 concurrent channels for 30 hours gives: 25,200,00 MB, or 25TB of traffic. According to Amazon, first 10TB are at 0.17$ per GB, and then the price goes down. So, let’s take a worst case of 0.17$ per GB. A total of 4284$ for operating 30 hours.

A total of: 4,468 US Dollars, Price per hours calculated at: 148$.

The savings

Per the task at hand, the utilization of Amazon EC2 yielded a savings of 92%

So, is Amazon EC2 good for any usage?

The answer is a definite NO! If your requirement is for a system that works 24×7, like a PBX system or a call center, then your utilization of Amazon EC2 would be identical to leasing a co-located server at any of the world wide co-location providers. If your application is of sporadic nature, or is utilized for short bursts of time, Amazon EC2 is a wonderful tool for lowering your overall expenses. Sure, it will require some work to get running, but the overall savings is more than worth-while.

As some of may know, I spend most of my time working as an Asterisk Developer and Consultant in my own company Рcalled Greenfield Technologies Ltd. Рnamed GreenfieldTech for short. Since the day I started my company I knew a few facts and truths:

  1. GreenfieldTech starts as a one man operation – thus, spending more than 15% of my day to day tasks on support issues will surely stress me out and drive my business to the ground.
  2. I don’t really want to deal with PBX installations and various office telephony aspects of using Asterisk – simply because it requires to much of item 1.
  3. I need a way to be able to provide a fast response to my customers, maintain a low support over head and make sure that what ever I do, it can be accounted for.

Hence the above, I understood that GreenfieldTech‘s products are not really the various services it provides, but actually the products vary completely from what a product looks and feels like. I understood that in order to provide this fast development turn-around I needed my own development framework. Surely PHPAGI, Adhearsion and Asterisk-JAVA can easily provide for a development framework – but it still doesn’t help me one bit – I needed something different.

I then realized that GreenfieldTech‘s products are the one product line that all developers and vendor steer away from: Programmatical API frameworks. The programmatic framework should provide the most basic feature set, allowing it to be extended and continued onwards at ease. Hence, the suite of GTx API frameworks were born. A set of 3 different APIs provide all the facilities required for building any of the below:

  • Dynamic IVR structures – driven via web services
  • Recording systems
  • Pre-Paid/Post-paid solutions
  • Inteligent Network (IN) services
  • Automatic Dialers – Predictive, Power, Progressive, Preview
  • Broadcasting systems
  • and more …

The entire API suite is based upon XML-RPC based web services. When I introduced XML-RPC to one of my customers, he immediately indicated: “But, XML-RPC doesn’t really provide for session oriented persistency. Why are you using XML-RPC?” – The reason is simple – we don’t need session persistency in the API – Asterisk can provide all of that internally. Thanks to Asterisk’s channel oriented architecture, we can regard each of Channel thread in Asterisk as a seperated data container, capable of holding all your session information and persistency information at ease.

Recorder API – http://www.greenfieldtech.net/products/gtrapi
IVR API – http://www.greenfieldtech.net/products/gtvapi
Dialer API – http://www.greenfieldtech.net/products/gtdapi

The best thing about the GTx API suite is this – they are all interconnected. For example, call being handled by the Dialer API can be then handed over to the IVR API, operating within the same Asterisk server or a remotely located Asterisk server (via SIP/IAX2).

In the time to come, I’ll be showing you various XML-RPC structures and example of how to use the GTx API suite, and do all sorts of interesting IVR and Dialer structures.