Takers, Givers and Matchers in Open Source

Recently, a friend sent me a link to the TED talk appearing below:

I found the talk not only interesting, but also it made me think about the Open Source world, trying to apply the same concepts and thinking. I rapidly realised that the Open Source world also has its own set of Takers, Givers and Matchers.

So, let’s talk a little bit about Open Source Givers. The givers will be those who either initiate in open source project, constantly contribute to open source projects, preach and promote the usage of open source as a way of life and most importantly – they do so not because of a commercial or financial agenda – they do so because that’s what they believe in. These include people like John “Maddog” Hall, Linux Torvalds, Richard Stallman, Brian Kernighan, Dennis Ritchie and many others. These people operate under a premise that their work is vitally important, not the world, to mankind and the well being of others.

So, who are our Open Source takers? sorry to say, the number of Open Source takers is far greater than that of the givers. The takers are your “Script kiddies” or “Closed integrators”. Those people who use and abuse Open Source without acknowledging its existence.  In Israel, as an example, when Open Source was still in its infancy stage – people were roaming about claiming that they created a specific project or other. For example, I recall that in 2006, a company in Israel claimed it was the creator of Asterisk – and that their AMP based PBX system is their own creation. How Rude!

Who are your Open Source matchers? matchers are people who jump from being a giver and a taker according to their requirements. These people utilize open source projects, contribute code from time to time, promote the project – nominally due to a business reasoning – and these constitute a slightly bigger portion than the givers. While Open Source innovation relies on Givers, it’s progress into the business world and adaptation to the enterprise relies mostly on Matchers. Takers do not promote the Open Source industry, in some extreme cases, the actually harm the industry.

So, are you a giver, matcher or a taker?

Digium D65 – More than a Home Run!

I love the feeling of unboxing a brand new IP phone, specifically, when it’s one that comes from Digium. Yes, I’m a little biased, I admit it – but I’ll do my best to refrain from dancing in the rain with this post.

So, during ITExpo 2017 (Ft. Lauderdale, Florida), Digium unveiled their new D65 Color Screen IP phone. Malcolm Davenport and the good people at Digium were inclined to send me a couple of phones for testing, which I was fairly happy to do – specifically due to the addition of the Opus Codec to the hardware.

If you are not familiar with Opus – you had most probably been living under a rock for the past 3-4 years. Opus is the codec that makes tools like Skype, Hangouts and others work so well. Unlike the traditional g7xx codecs, Opus is a variable bit rate codec, provides HD voice capabilities, has superior network conditions handling (via FEC) and in all – is a far better codec for any VoIP platform. You’re probably asking what is FEC? I’ll explain later.

Consistency and simplicity are a must – and Digium phones are both. One of the things I really like about Digium phones is that they are simple to configure, even without DPMA. The screens are identical to the previous models and are so tight together, that getting a phone up and running takes no longer than a few seconds.

Minor disappointment – the phones were shipped with a firmware that didn’t include the Opus codec – so I had to upgrade the firmware. Ok, no big deal there – but a minor nuisance.

So, I proceeded to get the phone configured to work with our Cloudonix.io platform. What is cloudonix.io? Cloudonix is our home-grown Real Time Communications Cloud platform – but that’s a different post altogether. This nice thing about Cloudonix is that it utilizes Opus to its full extent. Ranging from dynamic Jitter Buffering, Forward Error Correction across the entire media stack, Variable bit rate and sample rate support (via the Cloudonix.io mobile SDK) – in other words, if the Digium phones performs as good as the Cloudonix.io mobile SDK – we have a solid winner here.

So, I hooked the phone up and then proceeded to do some basic condition testing with Opus. All tests were conducted in the following manner:

  • Step 1: Connectivity with no network quality affects
  • Step 2: Introduction of 5% packet loss (using `neteq`)
  • Step 3: Introduction of 10% packet loss (using `neteq`)
  • Step 4: Introduction of 15% packet loss (using `neteq`)
  • Step 5: Introduction of 20% packet loss (using `neteq`)
  • Step 6: Introduction of 25% packet loss (using `neteq`)
  • Step 7: Extreme condition of 40% packet loss (using `neteq`)

Test 1: Media Relay and server located under 150mSec away

  • Step 1: Audio was perfect, HD Voice was exhibited all the way
  • Step 2: Audio was perfect, HD Voice was exhibited all the way
  • Step 3: Audio was good, HD Voice was exhibited all the way, minor network reconditioning at the beginning, till FEC kicks fully in
  • Step 4: Audio was good, SD Voice was exhibited all the way, minor network reconditioning at the beginning, till FEC kicks fully in
  • Step 5: Audio was fair, SD Voice was exhibited all the way, moderate network reconditioning at the beginning, till FEC kicks fully in
  • Step 6: Audio was fair, SD Voice was exhibited all the way, major network reconditioning at the beginning, till FEC kicks fully in
  • Step 7: Audio was fair, SD Voice was exhibited all the way, extreme network reconditioning at the beginning, till FEC kicks fully in

Test 2: Media Relay and server located under 250mSec away

  • Step 1: Audio was perfect, HD Voice was exhibited all the way
  • Step 2: Audio was perfect, HD Voice was exhibited all the way
  • Step 3: Audio was good, SD Voice was exhibited all the way, minor network reconditioning at the beginning, till FEC kicks fully in
  • Step 4: Audio was good, SD Voice was exhibited all the way, moderate network reconditioning at the beginning, till FEC kicks fully in
  • Step 5: Audio was fair, SD Voice was exhibited all the way, major network reconditioning at the beginning, till FEC kicks fully in
  • Step 6: Audio was fair, SD Voice was exhibited all the way, major network reconditioning at the beginning, till FEC kicks fully in
  • Step 7: Audio was fair, SD Voice was exhibited all the way, extreme network reconditioning at the beginning, till FEC kicks fully in

Test 3: Media Relay and server located under 450mSec away

  • Step 1: Audio was perfect, SD Voice was exhibited all the way
  • Step 2: Audio was perfect, SD Voice was exhibited all the way
  • Step 3: Audio was good, SD Voice was exhibited all the way, minor network reconditioning at the beginning, till FEC kicks fully in
  • Step 4: Audio was good, SD Voice was exhibited all the way, major network reconditioning at the beginning, till FEC kicks fully in
  • Step 5: Audio was fair, SD Voice was exhibited all the way, major network reconditioning at the beginning, till FEC kicks fully in
  • Step 6: Audio was fair, SD Voice was exhibited all the way, extreme network reconditioning at the beginning, till FEC kicks fully in
  • Step 7: Audio was fair, SD Voice was exhibited all the way, extreme network reconditioning at the beginning, till FEC kicks fully in

Ok, I was willing to accept the fact that if I’m able to carry a good audio call, for almost 3-4 minutes, while `neteq` was introducing a static 20% packet-loss condition – sounds like a winner to me.

All in all, till I get my hands on the Digium D80 for testing it’s Opus capabilities, the D65 is by far my “Go To Market” IP Phone for desktop Opus support – 2 thumbs up!

The box is a lie!

The box! What is the box? is it the teaching and constructs we’ve been taught over the years? the sum of experience and know-how? the various community or industry constraints and rules put upon us to conform? – Regardless what the box may be, everybody always tells us to “Think outside of the box”.

However, is “Thinking outside of the box” real? or is it something else? I personally believe the first element, and also the crucial part of that phrase is “Thinking”. Most people are not truly accustomed to thinking, they are mostly accustomed to “doing”, “following”, “leading” – not “thinking”. So, what am I ranting about exactly?

As a technology innovator I don’t believe the box is really there, a problem is a challenge to be resolved – it is not a box. As you can’t confine a problem/challenge to a box, it is an amorphous entity – my thinking patterns can’t be “outside of the box, simple because there is no BOX! The box is only in our mind – forcing ourselves to “Out of box” thinking is actually putting ourselves back into the confines of the box.

Solving complex challenges requires thinking first, then innovation and delivery. While thinking is something most people take for granted, as they believe they do it all the time, it’s actually a fairly complex process. Thinking involves one very special thing – that is letting go. Letting go of your own inhibitions, letting go of your own fear – and foremost, the willingness to step out of your normal comfort zone and looking at problems from a fresh new angle.

Over the course of time, I’ve been involved with multiple ventures that required this type of thinking. Some were successful, some had failed miserably – and some had went up in flames, that left the earth around its remains mostly scorched – with friends now not willing to talk to one another. Why have these companies failed? why have they gone to ashes? most of them actually had very innovative products and ideas, it can’t be that they truly went up in flames – or was actually something else that causes its demise?

Again, we come back to the box – and the realisation that the box, isn’t really a box – it’s an IKEA set of honeycombs, stacked together into a highly complex array of shelves, that are barely viable to the naked eye – but to the keen observer, will present multiple opportunities and possibilities.

Companies, regardless of their industry, are normally built of the same operational units:
1. Management
2. Marketing
3. Sales
4. Operations
5. Human Resources
6. Research and Development
7. Manufacturing

Now, normally – we would expect “out-of-box” thinking from R&D, Marketing and Sales. However, these will always be limited to the ability of Management and Operations to think “out-of-box”. If company management is limited by its thinking – that will automatically affect all operational units in the company – which will eventually bring to its slow and gruesome demise.

Another reason for untimely demise is the inability to respect the so called “Box”. It may be that you are willing to let go of the box, you are willing to say: “The box isn’t real”, but, it may be that your target market or audience is still kept in the “Box”. In such a case, taking your audience out of the “Box” is a highly challenging task – where most pioneers will fail. Why will it fail? it takes a very special individual to be able to do that. Not only he needs to be a true visionary, he needs to be able to convince other people of his belief. And most importantly, it can’t be some random hired person – it has to be a founder, a true believe of the cause, a person so capable of immersing himself in the idea – that it becomes an integral part of his being, anything else will just not work.

It takes a true genius to take an audience and shift their minds from the box, very few had succeeded. Look around you? how many people do you know of who are capable of doing that? Personally speaking, I can list a few, but counting will require less than my right hand. Steve Jobs, Elon Musk, Richard Branson, Stephen Hawking – these are all pioneers who had challenged the “box” and managed to educate the audience that the “box” isn’t really there. Was Steve Jobs a technology genius? – NO. Is Elon Musk a master electrical engineer, most probably not. They are thought leaders, mind shapers – they are the ones will look at and say: “He’s a smart guy, maybe I should listen to him”, and it’s not really because they are smart. It’s because they were able to convince us, with their own conviction and determination, that they should be listened to.

Dr. Who once said: “I’m just a mad man in a box” (Yes, I’m a moderate whovian), that is further from the truth. The tardis is always “bigger on the inside”, and thus, the “Box” isn’t limited to own physical borders, and anything always “out-of-box”.

So, next time you encounter a problem, try challanging yourself by saying: “Ok, let’s think about this from a new point of view, maybe there is another solution”. Next time when you interview someone for a position at your company, try to say: “Ok, is this guy truly what my team needs? or do I need something else?” – look at the box, shatter it to pieces and build something new from it – out of chaos comes order – out of rubble comes greatness.

Telephony Fraud – Further Analysis

Following yesterday’s post, I’ve decided to take another set of data – this time following the start of the year, with a specific data profile. What is the profile? I will describe:

  1. The honeypot server in this case was a publically accessible Kamailio server
  2. The honeypot changed its location and IP every 48 hours, over a period of 2 weeks
  3. The honeypot was always located in the same Amazon AWS region – in this case N.California
  4. All calls were replied to with a 200 OK, followed by a playback from an Asterisk server

In this specific case, I wasn’t really interested in the attempted numbers, I was more interested to figure out where attacks are coming from. The results were fairly surprising:

The above table shows a list of attacking IP numbers, the number of attempts from each IP number – and the origin country. For some weird reason, 97% of potential attacks originated in Western Europe. In past years, most of the attempts were located in Eastern European countries and the Far-East, but now this is Mainland Europe (Germany, France, Great Britain).

Can we extrapolate from it a viable security recommendation? absolutely not, it doesn’t mean anything specific – but it could mean one of the following:

  1. The number of hijacked PBX systems in mainland Europe is growing?
  2. The number of hijacked Generic services in mainland Europe is growing?
  3. European VoIP PBX integrators are doing a lousy job at securing their PBX systems?
  4. European VPS providers pay less attention to security matters?

If you pay attention to the attempts originating in France, you would notice a highly similar IP range – down right to the final Class-C network, that is no coincidence, that is negligence.

Now, let’s dig deeper into France and see where they are attempting to dial:

So, on the face of it, these guys are trying to call the US. I wonder what are these numbers for?

Ok, that’s verizon… let’s dig deeper…

Global Crossing? that is interesting… What else is in there???

 

So, all these attempts go to Landlines – which means, these attempts are being dialed most probably into another hijacked system – in order to validate success of finding a newly hijacked system.

Well, if you can give me a different explanation – I’m all open for it. Also, if any of the above carriers are reading this, I suggest you investigate these numbers.

 

 

Telephony Fraud – Still going strong

Who would believe, in the age of Skype, Whatsapp and Facebook – telephony fraud, one of the most lucrative and cleanest form of theft – is still going strong. Applications of the social nature are believed to be harming the world wide carrier market – and carrier are surely complaining to regulators – and for a legitimate reason. But having said that, looking at some alarming fraud attempt statistics, thing will show you a fairly different story.

So, analysing fraud is one of my things, I enjoy dropping honeypots around the world, let them live for a few days and then collect my data. My rig is fairly simplistic:

  1. A have a Homer (www.sipcapture.org) server to capture all my traffic
  2. A have an amazon AWS cloudformation script that launches up instances of Asterisk, FreeSwitch and Kamailio
  3. All instances are pre-configured to report anything back to Homer
  4. Upon receiving a call – it will be rejected with a 403

Why is this a good honeypot scheme? simple – it gives the remote bot a response from the server, making it keep on hitting it with different combinations. In order to make the analysis juicy, I’ve decided to concentrate on the time period between 24.12.2016 till 25.12.2016 – in other words, Christmas.

I have to admit, the results were fairly surprising:

  1. A total of 2000 attacks were registered on the honeypot server
  2. The 2 dominant fraud destinations were: The palestinian authority and the UK
  3. All attacks originated from only 5 distinct IP numbers

Are you wondering what the actual numbers are? Here is the summary:

Row Labels 185.40.4.101 185.62.38.222 195.154.181.149 209.133.210.122 35.166.87.209 Grand Total
441224928354 19         19
441873770007       204   204
76264259990     1     1
17786514103         2 2
972592315527   1774       1774
Grand Total 19 1774 1 204 2 2000

As you can see, the number 972592315527 was dailed 1774 from a single IP – 185.62.38.222. I can only assume this is a botnet of some sort, but the mix of IP numbers intrigued me. So, a fast analysis revealed the following:

Amsterdam? I wonder if it’s a coffee shop or something. The thing that also intrigued me was the phone number, why would the bot continue hitting the same mobile phone number? I couldn’t find any documentation of this number anywhere. Also, the 97259 prefix automatically suggests a mobile number in the PA, so my only conclusion would be that this is a bot looking for a “IPRN” loop hole – which is again fraudulent.

So, if this what happens in 48 hours – you can imagine what happens over a month or a year.

DISCLAIMER:

The above post contains only partial information, from a specific server on a network of worldwide deployed honeypots. The information provided as-is and you may extrapolate or hypothesize what it means – as you see fit. I have only raised some points of discussion and interest.

Should you wish to join the lively discussion on HackerNews, please follow this link: https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=13354693 for further discussion.